This article concerns research conducted at a 100-m2 experimental farm with three sub-configurations: no modules (control), low module density, and high module density. In each configuration, 9 stalks/m2 were planted 0.5 m apart. The biomass of corn stover grown in the low-density configuration was larger than that of the control configuration by 4.9%. Also, the corn yield per square meter of the low-density configuration was larger than that of the control by 5.6%. 

This article reviews factors that influence solar PV and agronomic management in agrisolar systems. The authors conclude that several adjustments for crop selection and management are needed due to light limitation, microclimate condition beneath the solar structure, and solar structure constraints. The authors also conclude that a systematic irrigation system is required to prevent damage to the solar panel structure. 

This study investigates the effects of semi-transparent, wavelength-selective OPV solar on a greenhouse tomato crop in the arid southwestern U.S. This study demonstrates that the use of semi-transparent OPVs as a seasonal shade element for greenhouse production in a high-light region is feasible. However, a higher transmission of PAR and greater OPV device efficiency and durability could make OPV shades more economically viable, providing a desirable solution for co-located greenhouse crop production and renewable energy generation in hot and high-light intensity regions.

This study concerns lettuce grown beneath solar panels and found large leaf size and yield in lettuce grown under the panels. The authors suggest optimizing solar panel shade and lettuce varieties for optimal co-location.

This Master’s Thesis includes research findings on the performance of agrivoltaic systems with stilt-mounted photovoltaic (PV) panels on farmland. The results showed that the stilt-mounted agrivoltaic system can mitigate the trade-off between crop production and clean energy generation even when applied to shade-intolerant crops. 

This report includes a discussion of vegetation-centric approaches to the co-location of solar energy and vegetation, including harvestable crops.

This study investigates the effects of solar photovoltaic panel designs on lettuce growth. 

This study investigates a hybrid of co-located agriculture and solar photovoltaic (PV) infrastructure by monitoring micro-climatic conditions, PV panel temperature, soil moisture and irrigation water use, plant eco-physiological function and plant biomass production within a agrivoltaic ecosystem and in traditional PV installations and agricultural settings to quantify trade-offs. Authors find that shading by the PV panels provides multiple additive and synergistic benefits, including reduced plant drought stress, greater food production and reduced PV panel heat stress. 

This North American Center for Saffron Research and Development reports the findings of two years of study on growing saffron under solar panels at the Peck Electric solar field in Burlington, VT. Updated Feb ’22.

This article describes the impact of crop spacing and PV module design on tomatoes in a greenhouse.