Climate change and extreme weather affect tea growing. A competitive tea market needs quick, short-term solutions. This study evaluates the effects of various shade nets under mild and extreme cold stress on tea leaf physiology, photosynthetic alterations, antioxidant activities, and physiochemical characteristics. Tea plants were treated with SD0 (0% non-shading), SD1 (30% shading), SD2 (60% shading), and SD3 (75% shading). The 30%, 60%, and 75% shade nets shielded tea leaves from cold damage and reduced leaf injury during mild and extreme cold conditions compared with SD0% non-shading. Shading regulates photochemical capacity and efficiency and optimizes chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents. Moreover, carbon and nitrogen increased during mild cold and decreased in extreme cold conditions. Shading promoted antioxidant activity and physiochemical attributes. In fact, under 60% of shade, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and -3 alpha-linolenic acid were improved compared with SD0% non-shading during both mild and extreme cold conditions. From these findings, we hypothesized that the effect of different shades played an important role in the protection of tea leaves and alleviated the defense mechanism for “Zhong Cha 102” during exposure to a cold environment.
This paper shows that agrivoltaic systems allow us to reach sustainable food and electricity goals
with high land-use efficiency. The study shows the yield, antioxidant capacity, and secondary metabolite
of broccoli and electricity production were analyzed under an agrivoltaic system over three cultivation
periods. The study also reports that agrivoltaic with additional shading treatment produced greener broccoli with a higher level of consumer preference than open-field grown ones.
This study discusses the analytics of tracking and backtracking for PV plants with various trackers after being converter to agrisolar plants or operations. Some of the details included in this report are: astronomical considerations, hedgerow crop height, tracking axis's with and without crops, daily incidental radiation and solar declination, among other topics. These results could be used for implementing new strategies in future agrisolar operations.
This report discusses the goal of agrisolar systems, which would generate electricity from raised solar panels and allow crop cultivation under the solar panels, and their development. Details of the report include the effect of raised solar panels and their effect on shading, which affects factors of the crops development. This information can be used to potentially optimize the design of agrisolar operations to most effectively benefit the crops included in the agrisolar operation.
This study examines a variety of percentages of the total area covered with shade produced by photovoltaic modules on rooftop lettuce crops. The results of the study suggest that in areas of high radiation and temperature(s), it is possible to use the same area on rooftops to produce photovoltaic energy and effectively cultivate plant species that demand little sunlight, such as lettuce. These conclusions mean that rooftop agrisolar is effective when the strategies in this study are taken into consideration.
This article describes a planned three-year study (2019-2022) to understand the effect of shading below solar panels in apple production. This study includes tree water status, irrigation requirements, and fruit growth. The first-year results show that the presence of solar panels on top of apple trees improved their water status with less water applied in the period prior to harvest without any negative effects in fruit growth rates than with trees that had no solar panels.
This thesis examines the crop outputs for Swiss chard, kale, pepper, and broccoli in an agrisolar system with different gap spacings between solar panel clusters. It concludes that the biomass crop yields of agrisolar plots are restricted significantly for Swiss chard, kale, or pepper compared against the full-sun control plot yields but not for broccoli stem and leaf yields.
This article concerns research conducted at a 100-m2 experimental farm with three sub-configurations: no modules (control), low module density, and high module density. In each configuration, 9 stalks/m2 were planted 0.5 m apart. The biomass of corn stover grown in the low-density configuration was larger than that of the control configuration by 4.9%. Also, the corn yield per square meter of the low-density configuration was larger than that of the control by 5.6%.
This article reviews factors that influence solar PV and agronomic management in agrisolar systems. The authors conclude that several adjustments for crop selection and management are needed due to light limitation, microclimate condition beneath the solar structure, and solar structure constraints. The authors also conclude that a systematic irrigation system is required to prevent damage to the solar panel structure.
This study investigates the effects of semi-transparent, wavelength-selective OPV solar on a greenhouse tomato crop in the arid southwestern U.S. This study demonstrates that the use of semi-transparent OPVs as a seasonal shade element for greenhouse production in a high-light region is feasible. However, a higher transmission of PAR and greater OPV device efficiency and durability could make OPV shades more economically viable, providing a desirable solution for co-located greenhouse crop production and renewable energy generation in hot and high-light intensity regions.
This study concerns lettuce grown beneath solar panels and found large leaf size and yield in lettuce grown under the panels. The authors suggest optimizing solar panel shade and lettuce varieties for optimal co-location.
This Master’s Thesis includes research findings on the performance of agrivoltaic systems with stilt-mounted photovoltaic (PV) panels on farmland. The results showed that the stilt-mounted agrivoltaic system can mitigate the trade-off between crop production and clean energy generation even when applied to shade-intolerant crops.
This report includes a discussion of vegetation-centric approaches to the co-location of solar energy and vegetation, including harvestable crops.
This study investigates the effects of solar photovoltaic panel designs on lettuce growth.
This study investigates a hybrid of co-located agriculture and solar photovoltaic (PV) infrastructure by monitoring micro-climatic conditions, PV panel temperature, soil moisture and irrigation water use, plant eco-physiological function and plant biomass production within a agrivoltaic ecosystem and in traditional PV installations and agricultural settings to quantify trade-offs. Authors find that shading by the PV panels provides multiple additive and synergistic benefits, including reduced plant drought stress, greater food production and reduced PV panel heat stress.
This North American Center for Saffron Research and Development reports the findings of two years of study on growing saffron under solar panels at the Peck Electric solar field in Burlington, VT. Updated Feb '22.
This article describes the impact of crop spacing and PV module design on tomatoes in a greenhouse.
This study describes a foldable solar PV structure developed to grow pear crops in Korea.
This resource provides practical advice for farmers considering installing solar photovoltaic systems.
This article provides an overview of solar-suitable crops in Germany. It contrasts the performance, imitations, and possible agrisolar synergies of large-scale crops compared to small-area specialized crops.
This article reports the findings of a studied on kale, broccoli, chard, peppers, tomatoes, and spinach grown in the partial shade of a solar photovoltaic system.
This article reports findings from the ACRE farm in West Lafayette, Indiana, which includes single-axis trackers in a novel configuration atop a maize test plot.
This article describes a study of potatoes grown under solar panels. The study concludes that the panels promote potato plant grow but do not provide protection from frost.
This articles includes research findings of a study conducted on grapes that were cultivated on land that was divided into six sections: three with photovoltaic panels and three without. The study did not find a difference in grape growth but did find a slight slowing of grape growth under the solar panels. The sugar content was slightly higher in the experiment group.
This article describes a simulated maize (corn) crop, grown under an agrivoltaic system trademarked Agrovoltaico.
The article concerns changes in microclimatic conditions in an agrisolar system within an organic crop rotation. Crops include celeriac, winter wheat, potato, and grass-clover cultivated both underneath solar PV panels system and on an adjacent reference site without solar panels. Alteration in microclimatic conditions and crop production under solar PV was confirmed including reduced photosynthetic active radiation, soil temperature, soil moisture, and air temperatures.
This article concerns a study conducted at the Biosphere 2 Agrivoltaics Learning Lab. The study found that an agrivoltaic installation can significantly reduce air temperatures, direct sunlight and atmospheric demand for water relative to nearby traditional agricultural settings.
This article describes the microclimate and growth characteristics of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon var. Legend) grown within three locations on an Agrivoltaic field (control, interrow, and below panels) and with two different irrigation treatments. Total crop yield was highest in the control fully irrigated areas and decreased as shading increased.