Aquavoltaics

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Physical analysis of the environmental impacts of fshery
complementary photovoltaic power plant

Photovoltaic (PV) power plants have shown rapid development in the renewable sector, but the research areas have mainly included land installations, and the study of fishery complementary photovoltaic (FPV) power plants has been comparatively less. Moreover, the mechanism of local microclimate changes caused by FPV panels has not been reported. This work revealed this mechanism using a physical model to illustrate the impact of FPV power plants in a lake on the environment. The results indicated that the lake becomes a heat sink after deploying the PV panel on water. The comprehensive albedo decreased by 18.8% relative to the free water surface. The water energy change was dominated by the water–air vapor pressure deficit. In addition, the FPV panels had a heating effect on the ambient environment; however, the range of this effect was related to the water depth. The installation had an obvious heating effect on surface water.
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Mathematical Modeling Suggests High Potential for the Deployment of Floating Photovoltaic On Fish Ponds

This article concerns a dynamic model that simulates the main biochemical processes in a milkfish pond that is subject to floating photovoltaic (FPV) cover. The study concludes that the installation of FPV(s) on fish ponds may have a moderately negative impact on fish production due to a reduction in dissolved oxygen levels. However, losses in fish production can be compensated for by gains in energy.
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Floating Photovoltaic Systems: Assessing the Technical Potential of Photovoltaic Systems on Man-Made Water Bodies in the Continental United States

This article concerns floating photovoltaic (FPV) systems, also called floatovoltaics, or aquavoltaics, a rapidly growing emerging technology application in which solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are sited directly on water. Along with providing such benefits as reduced evaporation and algae growth, it can lower PV operating temperatures and potentially reduce the costs of solar energy generation. This article provides the first national-level (United States) estimate of FPV technical potential using a combination of filtered, large-scale datasets, site-specific PV generation models, and geospatial analytical tools. The authors quantify FPV co-benefits and siting considerations, such as land conservation, coincidence with high electricity prices, and evaporation rates. Our results demonstrate the potential of FPV to contribute significantly to the U.S. electric sector, even using conservative assumptions.
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Quantifying the Value of Foam-Based Flexible Floating Solar Photovoltaic Systems

This thesis investigates using a flexible crystalline silicon-based FPV module backed with foam, which is less expensive than conventional pontoon-based FPV. This novel form of FPV is tested experimentally for operating temperature and performance and is analyzed for water-savings using an evaporation calculation. The results show that the foam-backed FPV had a lower operating temperature than conventional pontoon-based FPV, and thus a 3.5% higher energy output per unit power. A case study of Lake Mead found that if 10% of the lake was covered with foam-backed FPV, there would be enough water conserved and electricity generated to service Las Vegas and Reno combined. At 50% coverage, the foam-backed FPV would provide over 127 TWh of clean solar electricity and 633.22 million m3 of water savings.
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Potential of Floating Photovoltaic Plant in a Tropical Reservoir in Brazil

This article reports findings of a simulation performed to assess the potential of floating photovoltaic power generation in the tropical Gavião reservoir, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The payback analysis indicates that the investment for construction of the system is fully recovered in 8 years, and that water losses due to evaporation can be reduced by approximately 2.6 x 106 m³/year, enough to supply roughly 50,000 persons.
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Model to Estimate the Potential and Performance of Wavevoltaics

The article concerns a concept known as Wavevoltaics that consists of integrating the photovoltaic (PV) cells over the vacant open-sky surface of wave devices. This article is intended to deliver the conceptual view of modelling this device and a method to estimate the available power potential and to evaluate the performance of Wavevoltaic device.
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Made in the Shade: Promoting Solar Over Water Projects

This Idaho Law Review publication discusses existing policies in many jurisdictions that create unjustifiable obstacles to solar over water development. It uses the ongoing effort to install solar panels above portions of the Central Arizona Project’s canal system as a case study to highlight the significant potential benefits of solar over water development. The article then identifies specific policy changes capable of better facilitating and promoting these innovative and uniquely valuable renewable energy projects.
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Hybrid Floating Solar Plant Designs: A Review

This article describes floating PV (FPV) plants on water bodies such as a dams, reservoirs, and canals. It also describes hybrid technologies including: FPV + hydro systems, FPV + pumped hydro, FPV + wave energy converter, FPV + solar tree, FPV + tracking, FPV + conventional power, FPV + hydrogen.
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Geographic and Technical Floating Photovoltaic Potential

The report concerns the photovoltaic geographic potential (PVGP), defined as the fraction of the solar irradiation received on the land available for a photovoltaic facility, and applicability to the analysis of floating photovoltaic (FPV) structures.
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Powering the Blue Economy: Exploring Opportunities for Marine Renewable Energy in Maritime Markets

This U.S. Department of Energy’s Water Power Technologies Office report describes marine and coastal opportunities for which marine energy could fulfill those energy needs. The major finding is that there are more markets with potential than anticipated, both for Power at Sea (including ocean observation and navigation, underwater vehicle charging, marine aquaculture, marine algae, and seawater mining), and Resilient Coastal Communities (including desalination, coastal resiliency and disaster recovery, and community-scale isolated power systems).
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Distributed Manufacturing of After Market Flexible Floating Photovoltaic Modules

In this study, an open-source, after-market distributed manufacturing method is proposed to be applied to large flexible PV modules to make flexible FPV systems. The results of this preliminary study indicate that foam-backed FPV is exceptionally promising and should be further investigated with different foams, larger systems and more diverse deployments for longer periods to increase PV deployments.
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Aquavoltaic System for Harvesting Salt and Electricity at the Salt Farm Floor: Concept and Field Test

This article describes concepts and designs of a photovoltaic system for harvesting salt and electricity at salt farm floor, with attention given to waterproofing, salt resistance, material and electrical safety, maintenance, and economic feasibility. The authors found that the power generation of the salt-farm parallel system is comparable to that of conventional solar power plants and that the cooling effect by seawater contributes more to the increase in the crystalline silicon photovoltaic module performance than does the absorption loss due to seawater by maintaining a certain height above the module.
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Aquavoltaics – Synergies for Dual Use of Water Area for Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Generation and Aquaculture

This paper reviews the fields of floatovoltaic (FV) technology (water deployed solar photovoltaic systems) and aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) to investigate the potential of hybrid floatovoltaic-aquaculture synergistic applications for improving food-energy-water nexus sustainability. In addition, several other symbiotic relationships are considered including an increase in power conversion efficiency due to the cooling and cleaning of module surfaces , a reduction in water surface evaporation rates, ecosystem redevelopment, and improved fish growth rates through integrated designs using FV-powered pumps to control oxygenation levels as well as LED lighting.