This study introduces a novel algorithm to estimate the accumulated global radiation inside photovoltaic (PV) greenhouses at desired time intervals. These features have been considered in the design of agrivoltaic systems, which integrate energy and food production on the same land unit. The PV greenhouse achieves this goal by integrating the PV panels on the roof. This is useful especially in locations where the land resource is limited.

This study reviews and analyzes the technological and spatial design options that have become available to date implementing a rigorous, comprehensive analysis based on the most updated knowledge in the field, and proposes a thorough methodology based on design and performance parameters that enable us to define the main attributes of the system from a trans-disciplinary perspective. Agrivoltaic systems have been the subject of numerous studies due to their potential in the food–energy nexus. Demonstrative projects with new conceptual designs based on PV modules for covering open fields have shown promising results through optimizing light availability while reducing the need for irrigation and protecting from extreme weather phenomena.

This study addresses spherical micro-cells that are a semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) technology which can contribute to improve the sustainability of greenhouse systems. The prototype STM is promising for greenhouse roof applications and its performance can be improved by increasing the conversion efficiency. Results of the study show that the balance of the light distribution for plant growth and electricity production should be designed carefully according to the nature of the light requirements of cultivated plants in the greenhouse.

The purpose of this study is to present the potentiality of an innovative prototype photovoltaic greenhouse with variable shading to optimize energy production by photovoltaic panels and agricultural production. The results show how the shading variation enabled regulation of the internal radiation, choosing the minimum value of necessary radiation, because the internal micro-climatic parameters must be compatible with the needs of the plant species grown in the greenhouses. In agrivoltaic systems, these considerations could be useful in optimization of the operations identified in this study.