This study applies Legal Framework Analysis to identify barriers and opportunities for a comprehensive legal infrastructure to enable agrivoltaics in the U.S. e State of Massachusetts is used as a case study to understand what elements of their regulatory regime contribute to their novel agrivoltaic policy program, while also considering the surrounding federal and local government dynamics in which this state program is embedded.

The case study shows that a comprehensive legal framework for agrivoltaics should arguably include a combination of federal and state energy financing mechanisms coupled with favorable state and local land use policies. Specifically, a state-level feed-in tariff and local government allowances for mixed land use between solar and agriculture will be the key features of an enabling legal framework.

The study revealed that grazing sheep on solar sites is a cost-effective method to control on-site vegetation and prevent panel shading. At no time in the growing season did vegetation shade the panels. Maintenance was less labor-intensive than traditional landscaping services and, thus, less expensive. The grazing trial at the Musgrave solar site was a full success for the site owners and operators, as well as the sheep farmer.

The aim of this study was to compare economic and agricultural benefits and challenges of traditional land management strategies (mowing, string trimming) with rotationally grazed sheep on solar sites. Sheep were grazed between May and November 2018 to obtain agronomic and economic data, as well as to gather knowledge of the feasibility of grazing sheep on solar sites.

This paper addresses the concern that despite the technical feasibility of renewable energy technologies and their contribution to climate-friendly power production, public opposition can be a hurdle for new installations of renewable energy installations, including agrivoltaic operations. This study assesses citizens’ perceptions of the Agrophotovoltaics (APV) technology by applying the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) concept.

In the workshop conducted in this paper, citizens’ perception on APV before building the first pilot plant was investigated to analyze relevant aspects for the innovation process and its framework at an early stage of the technology development process. This paper describes the impact of APV on landscape, biodiversity, economy, and on the requirements for regulatory framework.

The purpose of this guide is to help Michigan communities meet the challenge of becoming solar- ready by addressing SES within their planning policies and zoning regulations. This document illustrates how various scales and configurations of photovoltaic SES fit into landscape patterns ranging between rural, suburban, and urban. This guide will aid in community development and guidance related to public policy decisions related to solar energy development, which often includes agrivoltaic operations and development as well.

This study includes discussion on key benefits, tensions, and paradigms influencing farmers and farming communities’ decisions to host utility-scale solar generation. The first goal of this study is to develop a conceptual map of stakeholder interaction(s) around utility-scale solar deployment on agricultural lands. The second goal includes the critique of agrivoltaic solutions that fail to consider stakeholder priorities as technological fixes.

Scientists and engineers have recommended agrivoltaics to solve conflicts between land use for energy versus agriculture. The study discusses and focuses on stakeholder perceptions and paradigms about using agricultural land, particularly prime farmland. The study covers the question of how does the existing context of energy and agricultural systems affect solar siting, and how are stakeholders interacting to coproduce decisions?

The results of this study provide a conceptual map of stakeholder interaction on solar development on agricultural lands and argues that agrivoltaics are currently treated as a “technological fix.”

This report discusses the synthesis of four new symmetrical UV-absorbing diimides organic dyes for potential cosensitization process in greenhouse-integrated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Molecular cosensitization is favorable for manipulating solar radiation through the judicious choice of cosensitizers having complementary absorption spectra. For greenhouse-integrated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), the manipulation of solar radiation is crucial in order to maximize the flow of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for the effectual photosynthetic activity of plants; meanwhile, non-PAR is utilized in agrivoltaics for generating electricity.

Several agricultural farms in Nigeria are found in off-grid locations where there is the lack of water supply despite the abundant groundwater resources possessed by the country. Since water is one of the key resources for agricultural production, majority of the farms only resort to the use of fossil fuel-powered generators to pump water for their operations in Nigeria. However, concerns about the frequent increase in fuel cost, the maintenance, and the environmental issues associated with running fossil-fuel generators have driven the need for a clean and sustainable energy source. The photovoltaic (PV) pumping system is becoming more popular as an alternative energy source of water pumping for irrigation farming. This study presents the effects of total system head and solar radiation on the techno-economic design of PV-pumping system for groundwater irrigation of crop production in Nigeria. It also calculates the quantity of emissions avoided by the PV. The technical design is based on standard methodology to determine the PV capacity that can operate the pump to satisfy the daily water requirements for the crops, while the economic aspect involves the assessment of the life cycle cost and the cost of water per m3. The result reveals that the pump power ranges from 0.158 kW to 0.293 kW and the PV power ranges from 1.90 kW to 3.52 kW for a system head of 10 m and solar irradiation of 5.25 kWh/m2/day, respectively, while the unit cost of water ranges from $0.05/m3 to $0.054/m3, and the life cycle cost ranges from $7004 to $12331. This provides insights into the effects of varying the system head and the solar radiation, demonstrating that the PV-pumping system underperforms at higher system heads, but performs effectively at higher solar radiation. This is due to the decrease in the discharge rate and an increase in power output, respectively. The study will be useful for planning PV-based water pumping system for agricultural purposes. Adopting this method of supplying crop water requirements will go a long way to guarantee food security in Nigeria and other developing countries with similar climate and economic situations. Such a method is expected to lead to zero hunger in the country in the long-run.

A lot of economic analyses have been conducted in the last ten years to establish the most cost-effective solution for irrigation and evaluation of the project profitability. The benefits generated by the PVWP providing water by a submersible pump located inside a deep well have been highlighted for Divjaka region. The solar potential in the site is quite enough to be used to pump water from the deep well into the tank positioned at an effective altitude which can provide the water quantity and pressure by gravity. The study shows that installing a PVWP system represents the best technical and economic solution to drive a water pump that provides water for sprinkler irrigation. The economic benefits have been also addressed, evaluating the energy production and distribution throughout the year and the specific cost per m3 of water supplied (€/m3). Renewables are the key to enhance food and water security, drive agri-food productivity, leading to socioeconomic benefits in recovering from post-Covid-19. By combining our knowledge, data collected, surveys together can contribute to economic growth of our community-ensuring access to clean and affordable energy and raising the standard of living of rural and most vulnerable communities. In the area there are used two types of water pumping for irrigation purposes: Diesel driven water pumps and electricity powered water pumps. Both systems are very costly due to the high fuel cost and on the other hand self-investment to bring electricity from the national distribution lines are needed. The study shows very good results compared to the existing water pump systems (totally based on fossil or electricity from the grid) applied for irrigation purposes in Albania. Further investment in RES is essential for agri-food systems transformation and development, climate resilience and net-zero strategies by 2030 in Albanian context, as the majority of the rural population lies their economy on agriculture. The use of this kind of system could have an important contribution in the diversification of energy sources, mitigation of GHG, social and economic development of our country.

The purpose of this guide is to help Michigan communities meet the challenge of becoming solar ready by addressing SES within their planning policies and zoning regulations. This document illustrates how various scales and configurations of photovoltaic SES fit into landscape patterns ranging between rural, suburban, and urban.

This research presents a highly transparent concentrator photovoltaic system with solar spectral splitting for dual land use applications. The system includes a freeform lens array and a planar waveguide. Sunlight is first concentrated by the lens array and then reaches a flat waveguide. The dichroic mirror with coated prisms is located at each focused area at the bottom of a planar waveguide to split the sunlight spectrum into two spectral bands. The red and blue light, in which photosynthesis occurs at its maximum, passes through the dichroic mirror and is used for agriculture. The remaining spectrums are reflected at the dichroic mirror with coated prisms and collected by the long solar cell attached at one end of the planar waveguide by total internal reflection. Meanwhile, most of the diffused sunlight is transmitted through the system to the ground for agriculture. The system was designed using the commercial optic simulation software LightTools™ (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The results show that the proposed system with 200× concentration can achieve optical efficiency above 82.1% for the transmission of blue and red light, 94.5% for diffused sunlight, which is used for agricultural, and 81.5% optical efficiency for planar waveguides used for power generation. This system is suitable for both high Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) and low DNI areas to provide light for agriculture and electricity generation at the same time on the same land with high efficiency.