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Increasing the agricultural sustainability of closed agrivoltaic systems with the integration of vertical farming: A case study on baby-leaf lettuce

In this case study, researchers quantified the increase of land productivity derived from the integration of an experimental vertical farm (VF) for baby leaf lettuce inside a commercial photovoltaic greenhouse. The mixed system increased the lettuce yield by 13 times compared to a non-VF PV greenhouse and the average LER was 1.31. However, only 12 %
of the energy consumption was covered by the photovoltaic energy system.