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A Standardized Classification and Performance Indicators of Agrivoltaic Systems

The rapid increase of photovoltaic installations highlights the potential of agrivoltaic systems. These dual-land use systems mitigate land use conflicts for places with limited open space and moreover, show the potential as an added value in crop- and livestock cultivation. The many different names and interacting possibilities between agriculture and PV make it difficult and confusing for stakeholders to compare and benchmark existing installations as well as propose and set new (EU) legislation schemes. This work proposes a standardized classification (including names) of agrivoltaic systems, which is usable worldwide. The classification is based on the application, system, the farming type, PV structure and flexibility. These elements makes it possible to describe and categorize each existing agrivoltaic installation properly. This work suggests to mention each sub-category (for example: static stilted orchard agrovoltaic system) in future research papers or documents to order to better compare (rangevoltaic <=> agrovoltaic) and benchmark new installed installations. When comparing agrivoltaics, the use of the proposed seven KPIs will help to make meaningful comparisons and grounded decisions in case of possible new installations.